(click on highlighted link to load)

The articles listed below are involved with higher performance references and/or regulation stages
for audio amplifiers and other solid state gear. They are listed in their order of appearance. Some of
the very early articles are of mainly historical interest, but are included here due to the very strong
interest in regulators.

  • 1969: 'Don't Shun the Shunt Regulator' was published in the July 5, 1969 issue of ED, pp. 70-
    72. This very early regulator used a 2N3638 reference, a CA3018 IC array and a 2N3055 as
    a pass device. Old parts, but still a viable technique with the substitution of more modern
    stuff.   Dont Shun the Shunt Regulator

  • 1974: 'IC Regulated Power' was published in The Audio Amateur, within issue 4 of 1974, pp.
    14-20. This article focused on the basic performance of the op amp-based series type
    voltage regulator. It included a PCB layout suitable for a complete +/- output 1.5A lab supply,
    using the LM395 IC as the pass device. Mine is still working after 30+ years!    IC Regulated

  • 1994: 'Getting the Most from IC Voltage References' was published in issue 28-1 of Analog
    Dialogue, pp. 13-21. This article explores the basic operation of both series and shunt mode
    zener and bandgap type voltage reference ICs, as well as their specifications and
    applications.  Getting the Most from IC Voltage References

  • 1995: 'Regulators for High-Performance Audio' was a four part series published in The
    Audio Amateur, within issues 1-4. This series goes into the design, testing, layout and
    system performance of audio regulators. Parts 1 and 2 listed below, were authored by Walt.
    Part 3 was authored by Jan Didden, and is listed below, courtesy of Jan. Part 4 of this series
    is by Gary Galo.

  • 1997: In 'Regulator Excels in Noise and Line Rejection', in EDN January 12, 1997 pp. 92, 93,
    a scheme of driving the op amp supply from the regulated output appears. The circuit is the
    basic positive regulator from the 1995 series (above), enhanced with a buffer/level shifter to
    allow the rail bootstrapping. Line rejection is enhanced considerably. 'Regulator Excels in
    Noise and Line Rejection

  • 1997: 'Low Noise Power for Analog Circuits', was a 'Walt's Tools and Tips' column, within the
    ED Analog Applications Issue of June 23, 1997, pp. 65-68. This regulator version retains the
    scheme of driving the op amp supply from the regulated output, but is applied to lower
    voltages such as 5V.   Low Noise Power for Analog Circuits

  • 2000: 'Improved Positive/Negative Regulators' was a upgrade and sequel to the 1995 article
    series on regulators. It was published in Audio Electronics, issue 4 of 2000, with
    photographic and other assists from Mark Kovach. Improved Positive/Negative Regulators

Regulator & Reference Stuff